¶ 1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 This conceptual inclusiveness is also true of the Manifestation, which is "… the physical embodiment of an expression of a work." [frbr 20]. A manifestation may be a singlet, as in an author’s manuscript, or it can be a set of mass-produced things made publicly available, or anything in-between. They physicality of the manifestation is a primary characteristic:
¶ 2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 "When the production process involves changes in physical form the resulting product is considered a new manifestation. Changes in physical form include changes affecting display characteristics (e.g., a change in typeface, size of font, page layout, etc.), changes in physical medium (e.g., a change from paper to microfilm as the medium of conveyance), and changes in the container (e.g., a change from cassette to cartridge as the container for a tape)." [FRBR p. 22]
¶ 3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 2 This brings us squarely into the "multiple versions" territory, one of the compelling cataloging issues of the 1990’s: does a change of physicality require a new catalog record? The answer in the FRBR document is clearly "yes." Therefore a hardback book and a trade paperback of the same book would be different manifestations, and each e-book format would also be a different manifestation. This would be in keeping with the distinctions managed by publishers of these materials, and in the assignment of a specific ISBN to each physical format.
¶ 4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 Note that Manifestation is not separate from the expression of the work as described here, it embodies it. That term alone argues strongly against any separation of attributes between the Manifestation and the Expression and the Work. Note that the FRBR document does not say that the Manifestation embodies the Expression, but that it embodies an expression of a work.